Book Feedback A Life of Natural Health

Natural Health and Healing:

New Book:  ‘A Life of Natural Health’.

Link to the new book on Amazon: https://amzn.to/2GiUWF6

I really hope you have enjoyed my new book, published on Amazon 21st March, 2018. Please leave feedback on my books in the comments secion below.

A Precis of the book, duplicated from the back cover:
New Zealander Merrilyn Hope’s third book, entitled  ‘A Life of Natural Health’, is a testament to her belief in, and devotion to, natural healing practices over a period of 40 years or more. The reader who wishes to enhance his/her own healing abilities and improve personal health should find it a valuable resource.
The author believes that most illness can be reversed through beneficial diet, cleansing procedures, the  avoidance of harmful chemicals, and rest and meditation.  All these aspects of health are discussed, with examples where pertinent, in this book.
‘Prevention is better than cure,’ the axiom goes: In preventing or curing an illness, it is essential, first, to eliminate harmful chemicals from your body and your environment.  Many cleansing techniques are given in Ms Hope’s book for this purpose, some of which have proved to be successful in curing cancers and other degenerative disease, by such  eminent naturopaths and doctors as Walter Last, Dr Max Gerson, Dr Clark, and Dr Eva Hill.
Dr Gerson’s anti-cancer method, which famously uses castor oil, enemas, and much raw food, and which the author followed to eliminate a breast lump, is outlined. New Zealand doctor, Dr Eva Hill, cured many cancers in her lifetime: Her more simple, dietary and cleansing procedure for preventing, reducing or curing disease, is detailed within these pages, and so, too, is the three herb formula of Dr Hulda Regehr Clark, who describes her method as a ‘cure for all cancers’.The chapter entitled, ‘List of Complementary Homeopathic Remedies and Sequences’ will be a useful reference, both for students of homeopathy, and for those using homeopathy in the home. Learn what remedies work well with each other, and what remedy will cancel out another remedy. See how the childhood illnesses, mumps, measles, chicken pox, and flu, can all be helped with homeopathy.  Read about how the harmful effects of agricultural chemicals, or troublesome vaccinations, can also be alleviated with correctly selected homeopathic remedies.

Whilst the book is based largely on the author’s experience, and the writings of revered, naturopathic, or homeopathic practitioners, the information given within the book should not be substituted in any way for qualified medical advice.  Do consult your doctor or medical advisor if you are sick.

 

List Of Complementary Homeopathic Remedies And Sequences

What Sequence of Homeopathic Remedies Work Best?

DSCO 1732Dunedin Botanic Gardens:  Pic by Merrilyn on Holly’s camera December 2012.

It is useful to know what homeopathic remedies work in harmony with each other. Some remedies complement each other, whilst other remedies may antidote the effect of a remedy already given.  Remember not to have drinks of coffee if you are using homeopathic remedies, since coffee is one of the main antidotes to homeopathy.  It is also best to avoid strong tea, garlic, alcohol, and strong spices whilst using the remedies.

Poisons such as fly spray, herbicides and other agricultural chemicals, should always be avoided by the person who is interested in protecting the health of the family. These poisons will also affect the efficacy of any  homeopathic remedies you may be taking.

Usually, we hope, just one remedy will work to cure most complaints.  I mainly used homeopathic Drosera for croup, or whooping cough, because my children responded well to this remedy.  Aconite usually cures ailments which come on suddenly after being chilled or getting wet, and Belladonna will usually fix those high temperatures when the child has red, flushed cheeks.

But sometimes, when complications have arisen, or in other unusual cases – such as treating a young pup who suddenly was stricken down with the Parvo virus after I had agreed to foster him until we found a home – it may be necessary to use a sequence of Homeopathic remedies to effect a final cure.  In this case, I had to use a combination of remedies in order to rid the animal of the deadly Parvo virus, which took some beating.  I kept feeding the poor wee thing with teaspoons of honey and water to keep it from being dehydrated.

Initial progress was made with Arsen alb, (or Mercurius) which  brought down the temperature.  This seemed not to be having any more good effect after a couple of days, so I followed with a day or two of Sulphur and Thuja, if I remember correctly.  Even then, the final solution was to give the pup a dose of castor oil, which had the effect of immediately cleaning out the bowel, and the grateful puppy suddenly, and surprisingly,  got up on its feet again, after having been at death’s door for several days.  Within a couple of weeks after its recovery, we found a wonderful home for this lucky wee chap.

Such was my lucky experience in using homeopathy for dogs.

Complementary Homeopathic Remedies:  The complementaries which have been found to be most effective for each given remedy are highlighted in the list which follows.  Of course, you would choose the complementary remedy which most replicates the symptoms of your patient.

List Of Complementary Homeopathic Remedies And Sequences:

This table is more or less a replica of that given by Harvey Farrington, M.D., who wrote ‘Homeopathy and Homeopathic Prescribing’.  I have added information into this as it turns up in other textbooks, or from my own experience.

ACONITE is followed well by Arnica;  Belladonna;  Bryonia;  Coffea;  Mill;  Phosphorous;  Spongia; and Sulphur.  It is related to Belladonna, Chamomilla, Coffea.

Dr John Renner used Aconite 3x and Bryonia 3x, given both together at the same time, every 30 minutes during  childbirth. He brought thousands of babies into the world using this combination. (Ullman 1988)

ACTEA SPICATA is complementary to Caul; Colo.; Sabi.; Stict.; Vio-o.  (Phatack, 1977)  Useful for swollen, painful joints, especially of wrist, fingers or ankles.  Old people sensitive to cold.  Change in weather often brings on symptoms.  Sometimes shortness of breath with cold weather.  A bluish tinge to the sight.

ADONIS VERNALIS:  Phatack says this is a great non-cumulative heart remedy, especially in cases where heart is weakened following rheumatism, influenze, nephritis, or due to fatty degeneration.  Can help regulate the pulse and strengthen muscles of the heart, help urine flow and improve conditions such as arrrhythmia, cardiac dropsy, hydrothorax, ascites, anasarca. Phatack claims it for ‘Compensatory hypertrophy of heart in cardiac stenosis and mitral regurgitation.’  His dose is 5-10 drops of the homeopathic tincture.  It is related to Bufo. and can be compared with Conval; Digitalis; Strop.

ALOES is followed well by Sulphur.  Aloes affects generalities, stomach, and is useful for surgery. Aloes is related to Lil-t; Pod.; Sepia; Sulphur (Dr. S.R. Phatak, 1977)

ALUMINA is followed well by Bryonia;  Ferr.m.  Alumina is complementary to Bryonia and related to both Bryonia and Plumbum.  Useful for female complaints, especially gynoecological.

ANT. CRUD. is followed well by Squill.

ANTIMON TART is followed well by Baryta carbonica;  Ipecacuanha.

APIS is followed well by Arnica;  Baryta carbonica;  Merc. cy;  Nat. mur;  Pulsatilla.

One popular commercial combination is Apis, Belladonna and Phytolacca.

Apis mellifica – Should not be given after Rhus tox.  Apis is complementary to Nat mur. (T.S. Iyer p.364)

ARGENTUM NITR. is followed well by Kali c;  Nat. mur.

ARNICA is followed well by Aconite;  Calc. carb; Natr. sulph;  Psor;  Rhus tox;  Sul. ac.

Some common and effective Arnica combinations are:

Arnica, Asafoetida, and Pulsatilla.

Aconite, Mercurius, and Arnica.

Arnica, Asafoetida, and Rhus Tox.

Arnica, Aconite,and  Rhus Tox.

Arnica, Mercurius, and Rhus Tox.

Arnica, Ipecac., and Aconite.

Pulsatilla, Arnica, and Lycopodium.

 

ARSEN ALB OR ARSENICUM ALB:

Arsenicum is a much used remedy.  It is followed well by Allium sativum;  Carbo veg;  Lachesis;  Natr. sul;  Phos.; Pulsatilla; Sulphur;  Thuja.

Harvey Farrington M.D. often uses Arsenicum followed by Belladonna.

Arsenicum alb. is also followed well by:  Nux vomica; Iodine; Rhus tox.; (skin diseases) Sulphur.  He lists as Complementaries to Arsen alb:  Carbo veg; Phosphorous; Thuja; Secale.

Arsen alb follows well AFTER:  Aconite; Agaricus; Arnica; Belladonna; Chamomilla; Chinea; Ipecac; Lachesis; Veratrum alb. (Farrington)

Arsen alb. antidotes:  Carbo veg; China; Ferrum met.; Graphites; Hepar sulph; Iodine; Ipecac; Nux vom; Mercurius; Phosphorous; Sambucus; Tabacum; Veratrum alb; Lead poisoning.

Arsen alb is antidoted by the following remedies: Camphor; China; Ferrum met; Graphites; Hepar sulph; Iodine; Ipece; Nux vom; Sambusux; Tabacum; Veratrum alb.

Arsen alb is used together in a commercial preparation with Gelsemium and Eupatorium Perf.  I find this combination very good for shingles and eczema when dairy milk is excluded from the diet.

ARUM TRI is follwed well by Nitric acid.

ASAFOETIDA is followed well by Causticum;  Pulsatilla.  The sequence of Asafoetida, China, Mercurius, and Pulsatilla is a recommended one.

Arnica can be followed by Asafoetida and then Rhus Tox.

One sequence which is frequently used is Asafoetida, Lycopodium, Pulsatilla.

Asafoetida will antidote some remedies, if given after them:  It antidotes Causticum, Camphor, China, Mercurius, Pulsatilla and Valerian.

BARYTA CARB is followed well by Antimon tart. It is useful to use either before or after Hepar sulph, Psorinum, Sulphur, and Tub.  Dr Adolph Von Lippe says that using Psorinum after Baryta carb can ‘eradicate the constitutional tendency to quinsy’.

BELLADONNA is followed well by Bor;  Calc. carb;  Hepar sulph;  Mercurius;  Nat. mur.

BRYONIA is followed well by Abro;  Alum;  Kali c;  Lycopodium;  Rhus tox.;  Sepia;  Sulphur.

Dr Adolph Von Lippe recommends Phytolacca to follow, if Bryonia and Rhus tox do not have effect.

CALCAREA CARB. is followed well by Bar. c;  Lycopodium;  Silica.

CALCAREA FLUOR. is followed well by Rhus tox.

CALCAREA PHOS. is followed well by Ruta;  Sulphur;  Zinc.

CANTHARIS is followed well by Apis.

CAPSICUM is followed well by Nat. mur.

CARBO AN. is followed well by Calc. phos.

CARBO VEG. is followed well by Arsen alb;  China;  Kali c.;  Lachesis;  Phosphorous.  Dr J. N. Singhal lists Kali carb and Drosera as complementary to Carbo veg.  He compares Carbo veg to Carboneum; Lycopodium; Veratrum album; Carbolic acid.

Singhal complements Carbo veg. with Kali carb. for chest troubles.  For haemorrhage and dysepsia, he complements Carbo veg. with China. 

Carbo veg. is commonly used for collapsed states and chronic conditions,  (Boericke)  in 30th potency or higher.  Dr Banerjee uses the 6th potency for chronic cases with wind in the upper part of stomach, or Lycopodium if wind is in the abdomen.  Dr Bhardwaj uses high potencies, eg C.M., for collapsed states.  Dr Singhal says that Carbo veg. can help save lives after severe illness such as typhoid, cholera, pneumonia, when the vital force is extremely low.

Carbo veg. for stomach complaints when Nux vom. fails to act, (Farrington),  for stopping internal bleeding, (followed by China), whooping cough, and asthmatic attacks in elderly, when there is much perspiration and heat, especially on forehead.  Note:  Veratrum alb. is another important remedy for near collapse, but with Veratrum album, the sweat is cold. Hoarseness often goes with Carbo veg..

CAUSTICUM – Potassium hydrate or Caustic potash.  Acts on nerves, muscles, bladder.  It is followed well by Carbo. veg; Graphites;  Lachesis;  Petros.;  Sepia;  Stan.;  Staph.  Related to Gel.; Kali-bi.; Pho.; Rhus tox.; Sepea. Dr Phatak recommends Causticum for retention of urine after an operation.  For children slow to walk and talk. Chewing difficult. Effects of lead poisoning. Anxious and sad.  Feels guilty as if responsible for some crime.  Negative outlook. Spoonerisms in speech, jumbling up order of words or letters.  Warts. Restless legs at night. Rheumatic pains, cramps in legs, taught tendons, stiff joints, weak ankles, difficulty walking.

CEANOTHUS: A great spleen remedy. Complementary to Nat. mur. and related to China.  For enlarged liver or spleen, and useful for leukemia.  Pain on left side under rib cage. Better for lying on right side.

CEPA is followed well by Phos.;  Pulsatilla;  Sarsaparilla;  Thuja.

CHAMOMILLA is followed well by Belladonna; Calc. carb.;  Mag. c.;  Sanic.

CHELIDONIUM is followed well by Lycopodium or Merc.d.; or follow Lycopodium with Chelidonium if the first does not work Related remedies:  Bryonia; Kali-bi.; Mercurius; Opium.  Chelidonium is a great liver remedy, acting more on the right side. Characteristic to Chelidonium is a yellow tinge to the complexion and upset stomach, which indicates liver malfunction, or jaundice.  Affects the right lower lung and right side of abdomen.  Right-sided pain. Better for lying on stomach. Feels anxious as if guilty of a crime.  Worse for change of weather, coughing, motion and at 4.pm and 4.am.

CHINA is follwed well by Arsen alb.;  Cal. p.;  Carbo veg.;  Ferr.;  Kali c.;

CINA is followed well by Calc. c.;  Drosera;  Sulphur.

COCCULUS is followed well by Petr.

COFFEA is followed well by Aconite.

COLCHICUM is followed well by Arsen alb.;  Spigelia.

COLOCYNTHUS is follwed well by Causticum;  Mercurius;  Staphisagria.

CONIUM is followed well by Phosphorous;  Silica.

CROTALUS HORRIDUS, a snake remedy. Like Lachesis, is a left-sided remedy which affects the nervous system and the heart, and shares many of the same symptoms, except it is worse for cold air.  Its complementary is Lycopus.

Related remedies to Crotalus are:  The Ophedia; Arsen alb.; Camphor; Carbo veg.; Lachesis; Laur.; Sul. ac.; Tarentula cub.

CUPRUM is followed well by Arsen alb.;  Calc. carb.;  Iodum.

DROSERA is followed well by Carbo. veg.;  Nux vomica;  Sulphur.

DULCAMARA is followed well by Alum.;  Baryta c.;  Nat. sulph.

EUPATORIUM PERF. is followed well by Nat mur and Sepia

FERRUM is followed well by Alumina;  Arsen alb.;  China;  Hamamelis.

FERRUM PHOS. is followed well by Nat. mur.

FLUORIC ACID is followed well by Silica.

GELSEMIUM is followed well by Arg. n.;  Sepia.

The combination of Gelsemium; Hydrastis; Calendula given 3x per day, 3 drops of each, was given for agricultural poisoning, Dieldrin, RoundUp, and other chemicals, by a Dr Gerald Gibb for a friend of mine. This treatment proved effective over time.

GLONOIN is followed well by Belladonna.

GRAPHITES is followed well by Arsen alb.;  Causticum;  Ferr. met.;  Hepar sulphuris;  Lycopodium;  Sulphur.

HAMAMELIS is followed well by Ferr. met.;  Fluoricum. acidum

HELLEBORUS is followed well by Zinc.

HEPAR SULPHURIS is followed well byIodum;  Silica.

IGNATIA is followed well by Nat. mur.;  Phos. acidum; Pulsatilla;  Sepia.

IODINE is followed well by Badiag.;  Lycopodium;  Silica.

IPECACUANHA is followed well by Arsen alb.;  Cuprum metallicum.

KALI BICHROMICUM is followed well by Arsen alb.;  Phophorous;  Psorinum.

KALI CARBONICUM is followed well by Arsenicum iodatum;  Carbo veg.;  Nitric acid;  Phosphorous.

KALI MUR is followed well by Calcarea sulphurica.

KALMIA is followed well by Benzoicum acidum;  Spigelia.

KREOSOTE is followed well by Sulphur.

LACHESIS is chiefly a left-sided remedy which is followed well by Arsen alb.;  Calcarea carbonicum;  Carbo veg.;  Hepar sulph;  Lycopodium;  Mitric acidum;  Phosphorous;  Zinc iodide.

Dr Farrington lists the related remedies of Lachesis as: Arsen alb.; Belladonna; Carbo veg.; Causticum; Conium; Hepar sulph.; Lycopodium; Mercurius; Nitric acid; Sepia; Tarent. cub.; Tarent. hisp.; Zinc; and the Ophidia.

Lycopodium, Phosphorous, Zinc and Iodine are particularly complementary to Lachesis.

LACTIC ACID is followed well by Psorinum.

LEDUM is followed well ty China;  Sepia.

LYCOPODIUM is followed well by Calcarea carbonica;  Iodum;  Kali c.;  Lachesis;  Phosphorous;  Pulsatilla Sulphur.

MAGNESIUM C is followed well by Chamomilla.

MARUM VERUM is followed well by Calcarea carbonica.

MERCURIUS is followed well by Aurum metallicum;  Badiag.;  Belladonna;  Hepar sulphuris;  Sepia;  Sulphur.

Mercurius also follows well after Belladonna; Hepar sulphuris; Lachesis or Sulphur, but should never be given after Silicea according to T.S. Iyer.

NAJA is not such a common remedy, but it has its uses.  It is related to Lachesis:  Both are snake remedies which affect the nervous system and the heart.  Naja, according to Harvey Farrington,  is often more useful than Lachesis for heart affections such as angina pectoris with pains going to shoulder and neck; for heart palpitations brought on by stress; frontal headaches accompanied by pains in spine and palpitations; myocarditis with stitching pains due to stress; uncomplicated cardiac hypertrophy in young people.

Naja’s related remedies:  Arsen alb.; Cactus; Carbo veg.; Camphor; Cimic.; Tab.; Lachesis; Laur.; the Ophidia.

NATRUM CARBONICA is followed well by  Sepia.

NATRUM MUR is followed well by Apis;  Arg. nit.;  Ignatia;  Sepia.

NATRUM SULPH. is followed well by Arsen alb.;  Thuja.

NITRIC ACID is followed well by Arsen alb.;  Arum t.;  Calad.;  Calc. carbonica;  ALycopodium;  Thuja.

NUX MOSCHATA is followed well by Calcarea carbonica;  Lycopodium.

NUX VOMICA is followed well by Bryonia;  Chamomilla;  Conium;  Kali carbonica;  Phosphorous;  Pulsatilla;  Sepia;  Sulphur.

OPIUM is followed well by Alumina;  Baryta carbonica;  Bryonia;  Phosphorous;  Plumbum.

PALLADIUM is followed well by Platina.

PETROLEUM is followed well by Sepia.

PHOSPHORIC ACID is followede well by China.

PHOSPHOROUS is followed well by Arsen alb.;  Calcarea carbonica;  Cepa;  Kali carbonica;  Lycopodium;  Sanguinaria canadensis;  Sepia;  Silica;  Sulphur.

PHYTOLACCA is complemented by Silica.  It is antidoted by Belladonna and Mezerium.  Mercurius is incompatible with Phytolacca.  Phytolacca is a great gland remedy, and is especially known for its action on the breast and its mammary glands.  Can be used for reducing breast lumps.  Its action is similar to Bryonia and Rhus tox:  Phytolacca will often produce a cure when these two remedies fail to act.

I have found that, in combination with non-acidic Vitamin C, 10,000 mg a day thereabouts, for as long as needed and dose depending on the severity of the condition, Phytolacca taken daily for three weeks at a time, then a break, combined with Bryonia and weekly dose of Arsen alb has cured the type of breast lump which occurs after exposure to toxic herbicides such as glyphosate in RoundUp.

PLUMBUM is followed well by Rhus toxicodendron.

PODOPHYLLUM is followed well by Calcarea carbonica;  Nat mur.;  Sulphur.

PSORINUM is followed well by Sepia;  Sulphur;  Tuberc.

PULSATILLA is followed well by Arsen alb.;  Bryonia;  Kali bich.;  Kali sulph.;  Lycopodium;  Sepia;  Silica;  Stannum;  Sulphur;  Sulph.  acid;  Zinc.

Harvey Farrington M.D. uses the combination Pulsatilla; Arnica; Lycopodium to good effect.

RHEUM is followed well by Magnesia carbonica.

RHUS TOXICODENDRON is followed well by Bryonia;  Calcarea carbonica;  Causticum;  Lycopodium;  Medorrhinum;  Phosphorous;  Phytolacca;  Pulsatilla;  Sulphur. 

RUTA is followed well by Calcarea phos.

SABADILLA is followed well by Sepia.

SABINA is followed well by Thuja.

SANGUINARIA is followed well by Antimon tart.;  Phosphorous.

SARSAPARILLA is followed well by Mercurius;  Sepia.

SECALE is followed well by Arsen alb.;  Thuja.

SEPIA is followed well by Nat. mur.;  Phosphorous;  Psorinum;  Pulsatilla;  Sulphur.

SILICA is followed well by Fluoricum acidum;  Hepar sulphuris;  Lycopodium;  Phosphorous;  Thuja.

SPIGELIA is followed well by Spongia.

SPONGIA is followed well by Hepar sulphuris 

SQUILLA is followed well by Antimonium crudum.

STANNUM is followed well by Pulsatilla.

STAPHYSAGRIA is followed well by Causticum;  Colocynthis.

SULPHUR is followed well by Aconite;  Aloe;  Arsenicum album; Badiaga;  Belladonna;  Calcarea carbonica;  Mercurius;  Pulsatilla;  Psorinum;  Pyrogen (also called Sepsin);  Rhus toxicodendron; Sepia;  Sulphuricum iodide.

Aloe and Psorinum are complementary to Sulphur, and can be used concurrently with Sulphur.

Iyer says to use Sulphur after Aconite – useful sometimes in cases of pneumonia or other acute disease.  Iyer also recommends the following sequences: Sulphur, Calcarea, Lycopodium, or Sulphur, Sarsparilla, Sepia.

SULPHURIC ACID is followed well by Pulsatilla.

THUJA is followed well by Mercurius;  Nat. mur;  Nitric acid;  Pulsatilla;  Sabina;  Silica;  Sulphur.

TUBERCULINUM is followed well by Calcarea carbonica;  Kali sulph.;  Sepia.

VERATRUM ALBUM is followed well by Arsenicum album;  Carbo veg.:  (Farrington)  These three remedies are the top three listed by Hahnemann for near collapse of the body’s functions, when diseases such as cholera, typhoid, asthma, bronchitis, or pneumonia have weakened the body so much that death might seem imminent.  Veratrum album is called for when the vital organs are about to give up, with an overall  cold sweat.  Carbo veg. usually has a hot perspiration on the forehead, but rest of body may be cold and blue.  (Dr J.N. Singhal)

ZINCUM is followed well by Pulsatilla;  Sepia;  Sulphur.

Read also the post which follows this one, which gives a short list of antagonistic remedies:  “Homeopathic Remedies Which Do Not Mix Well”

My new book has come out on Amazon:

The hard copy of ‘A Life of Natural Health’ has just been published on Amazon, March 2018.  The link is: https://amzn.to/2GiUWF6

This new, hard-copy, book is an updated version of the Kindle ‘No Cancer and Good Health Notebook’ book which you see below.  ‘A Life of Natural Health’ contains an extended list of complementary homeopathic remedies and sequences, as well as some extra tit-bits such as a crock-pot recipe for yeastfree bread.

Below is the digital edition, on Kindle.  We have used Holly’s lovely cover design on both versions of the book.

Merrilyn;s song ‘Marianne, Let Us Be’ is on Youtube:
https://youtu.be/zov1KQVD8qg

See Merrilyn’s other posts on Homeopathy and Herbal Alternatives to Vaccination:

Reading these posts might be helpful if you have decided to forfeit those much-promoted and often dubious flu injections.

No Antibiotics For H7N9 Bird Flu Virus 2013 Human Killer

Homeopathic Remedy Arsen Alb For Flu Allergies Asthma

Homeopathic Arsen Alb For NZ Flu May 2013

http://merrilynhope.com/vitamin-c-cures-swine-flu/s/

Homeopathic Remedy And Herbs For Cholera

Best Homeopathic Remedy For Whooping Cough And Croup

List Of Homeopathic Remedies For Ear Ache

How Homeopaths Cured Some Cancerous Tumours

Doctors Used Homeopathy To Cure Fibroid Tumours

List Of Homeopathy Remedies For Shingles Herpes Zoster

Useful Homeopathic Remedies For Measles

Vaccination Alternatives and Homeopathic Remedies For Scarlet Fever

Scarlet Fever Outbreak in Hong Kong/Homeopathic Alternatives

Flu Vaccination Brought On Asthma And High Blood Pressure

Unicef Gives Vitamin A For Measles In Syria

Natural Treatments and Remedies For Scarlet Fever

 

No Cancer Notebook(1)